Costa Rica's Bold Steps in Conservation: A Model for the World

Rheannon Ketover

Costa Rica, a country near and dear to our hearts here at EcoCaptions, is a country known for its stunning natural beauty, abundant wildlife, and commitment to environmental protection and conservation. Located in Central America, Costa Rica has become a leader in sustainability and eco-tourism, attracting visitors from around the world who come to experience the country's unique biodiversity and natural wonders. In this post, we explore why Costa Rica is a leader in environmental protection and conservation, and the steps the country has taken to preserve its natural heritage.

A History of Environmental Protection

Costa Rica has a long history of environmental protection, dating back to the early 20th century. The country established its first national park, Parque Nacional Volcán Poás, in 1955 to protect the unique ecosystems and volcanic landscapes of the area. Over the years, the country has established a network of national parks and protected areas, covering over 25% of its land area.

In addition to protecting its forests and wildlife, Costa Rica has also taken steps to reduce its carbon footprint, aiming to become carbon neutral by 2050. To achieve this, Costa Rica has invested heavily in renewable energy sources such as hydroelectricity, wind power, and geothermal energy. These efforts have not only helped to reduce the country's carbon footprint, but also created new opportunities for job creation and economic growth.

Beyond protecting its natural resources, Costa Rica has taken significant strides to promote sustainable agriculture and forestry. The country has implemented programs to encourage farmers to adopt sustainable practices such as crop rotation, agroforestry, and integrated pest management, as well as an increase in organic farming. These practices not only help to conserve the environment, but also improve the livelihoods of rural communities by increasing crop yields and diversifying income streams.

One of the key reasons why Costa Rica has been successful in its conservation efforts is the country's political stability and democratic system. Costa Rica has a long tradition of democracy, with a strong and stable government that prioritizes environmental protection and sustainable development. The country's constitution recognizes the right of its citizens to a healthy environment, and its laws reflect a commitment to sustainable development.

Promoting Sustainable Tourism

Another key factor in Costa Rica's success is its emphasis on sustainable tourism. The country has developed a reputation as a premier eco-tourism destination, attracting visitors who are interested in experiencing the country's natural beauty while also supporting conservation efforts. 

The government has worked closely with the tourism industry to develop sustainable tourism practices, such as responsible wildlife watching and low-impact accommodations. Costa Rica has also implemented a program to certify sustainable tourism businesses, ensuring that visitors can choose accommodations, tours, and activities that are environmentally friendly and socially responsible.

In this way, protecting these natural habitats rather than destroying them has had significant economic benefits. The growing popularity of eco-tourism is a major source of income and job creation for local communities. 

Conservation Success Stories

Costa Rica has many conservation success stories, from the protection of endangered species to the restoration of degraded ecosystems.

1. One of the most notable examples is the recovery of the country's population of green sea turtles. In the 1970s, the turtles were on the brink of extinction due to habitat loss, hunting, and the collection of eggs for human consumption. 

Through a combination of conservation efforts, including the establishment of protected nesting sites, educational programs, and community engagement, the population of nesting green sea turtles in Tortuguero, Costa Rica has rebounded by 500%, with thousands of turtles returning to the country's beaches to nest each year. The Tortuguero colony is now the largest in the Western Hemisphere.

2. Another example of Costa Rica's conservation success is the reversal of deforestation. In the 1940s, it is estimated that 75% of the land in Costa Rica was rain forests. In the years following, deforestation began to pick up speed due to cattle ranching and agriculture. By 1987, it is thought that up to half of the rain forest had been destroyed.

Since then, the government and NGOs have launched ambitious reforestation projects, planting millions of trees and restoring degraded areas.The country's constitution enshrines the right to a healthy and ecologically balanced environment, and the government has established a number of policies and programs to support this vision. For example, Costa Rica has set aside over a quarter of its land as protected areas, including national parks, wildlife reserves, and biological corridors. These areas are home to a wide range of plant and animal species, many of which are threatened or endangered.

These efforts have led to 60% of land being covered once more by forest. One of the keys of this success was the government-funded financial incentives to farmers who plant trees. Through this program, over 1 million hectares of forest have been saved—or about one fifth of Costa Rica’s land.

3. As a leader in clean energy alternatives, Costa Rica’s energy is supplied, on average, by 95-99% renewable energy, most of which is from hydroelectric energy. Wind and geothermal power also contribute to the country’s energy banks. It’s worth noting that much of this is possible due to Costa Rica’s very wet geography. Not only does it have a high concentration of rivers, dams, and volcanoes, but it is also the sixth rainiest nation in the world.

Challenges and Opportunities

Despite its successes, Costa Rica still faces many challenges in its efforts to protect its environment and promote sustainable development. One of the biggest challenges, despite the aforementioned success of reforestation, is the ongoing threat of deforestation, which has increased in recent years due to a rise in illegal logging and land conversion for agriculture and cattle grazing. The country also faces challenges related to climate change, including the potential impact on its ecosystems and the need to adapt to changing conditions.

However, Costa Rica also has many opportunities to build on its successes and continue to lead in environmental protection and conservation. The country has the potential to become a model for other countries in the region and around the world, showcasing how economic development can be achieved while preserving the environment. One of the key opportunities for Costa Rica is the growth of sustainable industries such as eco-tourism and renewable energy. The country has the potential to attract more visitors who are interested in sustainable tourism, while also expanding its production of renewable energy such as wind and solar power.

Another opportunity for Costa Rica is the development of green technologies and innovation. The country has a strong culture of innovation and entrepreneurship, and has already made strides in developing sustainable technologies such as clean energy. By investing in research and development, Costa Rica can continue to innovate in sustainable technologies, while also creating new opportunities for economic growth and job creation.


Costa Rica is a shining example of how environmental protection and sustainable development can go hand in hand. Through its commitment to conservation, sustainable tourism, and innovation, the country has become a leader in environmental protection and a model for others to follow. 

Costa Rica's success in environmental protection and conservation serves as a model for other countries around the world. By prioritizing the environment and promoting sustainable development, Costa Rica has been able to achieve economic growth while preserving its natural resources for future generations. As we continue to face the challenges of climate change and environmental degradation, we can look to Costa Rica as an example of how we can create a more sustainable and prosperous future for ourselves and our planet.

With 27.5 acres of rain forest already purchased in the name of preservation, EcoCaptions is honored and thrilled to be a part of Costa Rica’s conservation success story. As a unified planet, we know that what we do here has cascading benefits for the rest of the world. We look forward to preserving and restoring more of this beautiful land and hope you join us. 

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